Keto Diet 101
Published Jun 06, 2018, Updated Oct 11, 2021
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You’ve heard about the keto diet and you’re wondering what the heck it’s all about? What do you eat on the keto diet? Is the keto diet right for you? We’ve got answers to all these questions and more!
Keto. Ketosis. A Ketogenic Diet. As these phrases are currently the #1 searched health and fitness related subjects on google right now, you’ve probably heard the buzz and have wondered what it’s all about! I’m a health and wellness nerd so whenever there’s a new diet I always tend to research it. With that said I know a little about the keto diet from my research, but today I’m bringing my friend, Dave Robinson of Get Strapped Stay Strapped back on the blog because he’s actually tried the keto diet and I want to hear his thoughts!
Let’s chat a little bit about what keto is, what it does to your body, how to get into ketosis and who it may or may not be best suited for! Just like many of you may have, I hopped on the keto bandwagon earlier this year… with mixed results.
What is Ketosis?
Ketosis is a metabolic state where the body produces “ketones” and burns these ketones and fat for fuel as opposed to carbohydrates. Ketogenic diets are characterized by consuming consistently high fat (75%), moderate protein (20%, careful with the protein!) and very low carbohydrates (5%). Typically, carbohydrates are the body’s most readily available and preferred fuel source for fast energy.
After you consume carbohydrates, be it a banana, sweet potato, rice or candy, those carbs are broken down into glucose and released/absorbed into your bloodstream through the small intestines at varying speeds. Depending on how quickly the food is digested (simple vs. complex carbohydrates), the pancreas will secrete varying amounts of insulin to prevent blood glucose levels from rising too high. This insulin spike causes blood sugar levels to fall and for those of us who are more insulin-resistant subsequently leads to those familiar “Carb Coma” symptoms such as fatigue, lack of focus/energy and mental fog.
When the body doesn’t have access to glucose for an extended period of time (through fasting, low-carb diets, or prolonged exercise), the body will burn stored fats instead of glucose, eventually resulting in a buildup of ketones from the breakdown of fatty acids, which may then be used as fuel. As it turns out, fatty acids and ketones are the BRAIN’S preferred fuel source. This explains why so many people report the feeling of having a clean energy burn in addition to increased mental clarity and focus as some of the many positive benefits of being in a ketogenic state (aka the opposite of being in a 24/7 carb coma).
By avoiding the vast majority of carbohydrates, moderating protein intake, and eating lots of fat to slow digestion, the body doesn’t produce a large insulin spike after eating which leads to another one of the main benefits of a ketogenic diet — helping to reset and increase your body’s sensitivity to insulin, and thus your body’s ability to more efficiently handle insulin spikes and use carbohydrates as fuel in the future. Being in a ketogenic state also means that your body has probably gotten incredibly efficient at burning fat as fuel… not only the fat that you eat, but also the fat that all of us tend to store and work our tails off to try to get rid of!
What is the Keto Diet?
Here is something important to note — there is a BIG difference between eating a high-fat/low-carb diet and ACTUALLY being in the metabolic state of ketosis where your body is burning ketones for fuel instead of carbs. How do you know you’re in ketosis? Breath and urine sticks aren’t nearly as accurate as a blood glucose monitor… after a finger prick, you’ll want to see your BHB (Beta-Hydroxybutyrate) levels consistently ABOVE 0.5mm, without the use of supplements like exogenous ketones to help get you there.
Especially in Western cultures, most people are extremely dependent upon carbs for fuel (which isn’t necessarily a bad thing, FYI). Even if you eat SUPER clean, you’re probably eating considerably more carbs than you will be able to eat if you decide the ketogenic diet is right for you. Herein lies one of my major qualms with keto — it is often extremely difficult to get into a state of ketosis, both physically, mentally, and from a practical standpoint.
Most people can take anywhere from 2-3 days all the way up to TWO OR MORE WEEKS to transition from burning carbs for fuel to producing and burning enough ketones to officially be in ketosis. Any slip up in diet may result in an insulin spike which would halt the production of ketones, effectively “kicking you out” of ketosis or prolonging the time it takes to get into ketosis. Many people experience flu-like symptoms during this timeframe as your body makes this difficult adjustment, including nausea, fatigue, dizziness, irritability, etc… not fun at all. I personally experienced Keto Flu HARD for 3 days when I made the transition to ketosis and I only stayed in ketosis for about 3 weeks. Why? As awesome as the benefits of being in ketosis may be once you get finally there, ketosis is super hard to get into, even more difficult to maintain (especially if you exercise), and definitely isn’t for everyone!
What Do You Eat on the Keto Diet?
On the keto diet you eat a high-fat, moderate protein, low-carb diet with carbs around 20-30 grams a day. You eat lots of meat, fish, eggs, full-fat dairy, oils and low-carb veggies (mainly green veggies) and avoid foods that are high in carbs like bread, grains, beans, fruit and starchy veggies (potatoes and other root veggies).
Will the Keto Diet Work for You?
Every single body is different and we are all predisposed to handle foods differently. Everyone’s endocrine systems operate a little differently as well and we all have varying levels of hormones such as estrogen, testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, and insulin. Most people see positive results pretty quickly from cutting carbohydrate consumption overall but in the long term, men and especially women need a certain amount of carbohydrates for optimal reproductive hormone function. Ketosis can have a negative effect on those functions. If you lead a high-stress life or are prone to adrenal fatigue, keto may not be right for you.
In addition, if you play soccer, go to Crossfit, do HIIT workouts, or are AT ALL interested in athletic performance I would HIGHLY recommend against ketosis. If your heart rate rises above a certain threshold, your body stops being able to metabolize fat for fuel and HAS to turn to glycogen stored in the muscle cells and the liver instead for energy. Basically, if you’re doing any form of exercise that is going to cause you to get out of breath for more than a couple of minutes, you’re going to need to be burning glycogen for fuel and the only way to replenish your glycogen stores is to eat carbohydrates. While I lost close to 10 pounds and leaned out considerably in the three weeks I was in ketosis, my athletic performance ability drastically reduced and my workouts REALLY suffered.
Again, everyone is different. For folks who are dealing looking for increased mental clarity, more sustained energy and would like to lose some fat but aren’t too concerned about how they’re performing in the gym or on the field, ketosis may be a fit! Just make sure your stress levels are low, you’re consistently getting good sleep, your hormones are balanced, and you don’t have an increased risk of infection or inflammation for any reason.
A ketogenic diet also may be a great fit for most people for a couple of weeks per year as a way to reset insulin sensitivity and help your body more efficiently burn both carbohydrates and fats when you get out of ketosis. Overall, I often recommend ketosis for many of my weight-loss clients but hardly any of my performance clients or clients with high-stress lifestyles or pre-existing metabolic conditions. The important thing, as always, is to do your research, ask your doctor, listen to your body, and perhaps try it yourself to see how you respond, and remember, Brittany and I are always available to help clarify!
Brittany here again. I loved hearing Dave’s take on the keto diet, but if you want my honest opinion, I think it’s too restrictive and impractical for most people. Whenever I see a diet that almost completely cuts out whole food groups a huge red flag is raised and I immediately think “fad diet”. I’m a big fan of eating more healthy fats and reducing simple carbs but I personally won’t be trying out the keto diet — as someone who has dealt with hormone issues including hypothalamic amenorrhea it wouldn’t be a wise choice for me and I also don’t think the keto diet is sustainable long-term. There’s no way I’m giving up sweet potatoes and oatmeal!
When it comes to weight loss I recommend finding a balanced, lifestyle approach with healthy habits that you can keep up with for life because DIETS DON’T WORK. My diet advice — stick with whole, real foods most of the time — fruits and vegetables, lean meats, fish, whole grains, nuts, seeds, healthy oils and lots of water! Experiment with what foods make you feel your best because as Dave mentioned, we’re all different! Want to lose weight without dieting? Check out my tips here!
Brittany, as a Registered Dietitian reading your takeaway made me SO happy! Yes, people will lose weight on the keto diet…but I’ve never once seen them keep the weight off in my patients/clients I work with and from research studies! Couldn’t agree more with what you said about how diets DO NOT work and it’s about healthy habits, intuitive eating, lifestyle, etc!
Same! I’ve been coaching and helping people get healthy for a long time. Through this and my own personal experience I’ve seen the same thing. Glad we’re on the same page. <3
I agree! I worked in the Health Food industry for many years, and one thing really struck me: roughly every 6 months, there is a new “miracle wonder item” that will supposedly cure you of anything bad, melt off your excess weight, and basically rocket you into perfect health in no time at all. Then, less than a year later, almost all of those claims are debunked (and in some cases proven to actually be detrimental), the item is replaced with the new “miracle wonder item”, and the cycle continues. My takeaway was this: Listen to your body! Eat healthily- stay away from processed stuff and wean yourself off of excess sugar (which even so-called “healthy” recipes use waaaaay too much), eat lots of veggies, get some exercise everyday, and- if you choose to jump on a “miracle wonder cure” bandwagon, do so in moderation- NOTHING is a “cure-all”; and see how it works for you and your body.
Anyone who is old enough may remember how we were told that: “fat makes you fat- so cut out ALL fat”, “eggs are terrible for you- do not eat any!”, taking TONS of vitamin E or C would cure anything including cancer, and that saccharine was the best sugar substitute, to name a few. Now we know better…
Nice Post I like your article very well written and explain each topic very briefly thanks for sharing information about keto diet
Loved this article, and its takeaways. I’ve seen so many of my friends and co-workers swear by keto and only take away what the liked about keto (i.e., all the bacon and cheese), without doing the research on what their body is doing when they eat this way. Thank you for always providing thoughtful, balanced perspectives on these health fads.
Great info Brittany. I’m a huge fan of the keto diet. Been on it for 2 years or so and absolutely love it!
Eating bird food! Love the name. You know when i first did keto, i exercised aswell quite intensely and it made me feel so poorly! I agree with a part of your article about not to mix the both. Slow and steady wins the race.
I still exercise but very moderately and a few times a week. Long walks suffice well. Its all a learning curve and like you said everyones body is different and you couldnt be any more right in saying so.
Anyway just chiming into a great blog post!
Also love the site! Eating bird food haha!
A very excellent details , thankyou for the post.
Absolutely! Thank you!